HISTORY Of Dholpur
Dholpur according to the Epics was initially known as Dhawalgiri and later on Dhaulagir, and now as Dholpur. Before the battle of Mahabharat this whole area was under the Yadavs. Whose different branches were spread over the entire area extending from the south of the river Chambal. There is a common belief that some of the Aryan races also lived in this part. Col. James Todd in his book Annals and Antiquities of Rajputana has mentioned that the area was submerged under sea during the Ramayan period.
The key to the ancient history of Dholpur is the ruins of strength fort which is situated on the bank of river Chambal. According to the Modern Reviews Hindi edition Vishal Bharat published during 1957. The author in one of its edition has linked Dholpur to the period of Lord Vishnu. According to him the present fort was the seat of lord Vishnu and all around was water. Looking at the condition of the fort it appears that it is very ancient but its age can only be ascertained by chemical analysis.
During the second phase of ancient history, the ruins of Mahabharat period could be seen and around the temple of Muchukund ji. According to the Shastras Muchukund was a very illustrious king before Krishna. During the war between Devtas and Danavas, King Muchukund sided with the devtas and was instrumental in their victory. Indra was so pleased was that he asked Muchukund to have a boon. Muchukund was so tired that he asked Indra to allow him to sleep peacefully and if anyone should wake him up, Muchukunds angry gaze would burn him to ashes. Mahabharat reveals that during one of the battles with the demons Krishna ran away to save his life from one of the demons and came to the spot where Muchukund was sleeping. He put his pitamber on the sleeping Muchukund. The demon thinking him to be Krishna woke him up, and thus the demon was burnt to ashes, and thus the life of Krishna was saved. The event took place, in a spot very near to the Muchukund Jis temple, where the ruins of old palaces still exist. The appearance of these, however does not seem to be that old.
The archaeological investigations in the district have pushed his history back to the Stone Age. Hence, no Palaeoliths have been reported from this area as so far. Microlithic tools were reported from Hansai, Nand-ka-pura in Tehsil Bari ; Tor Danyal in Tehsil Dholpur and Karka Kherli in Tehsil Rajakhera which suggest that the district inhavited by the microlithick people in large. Painted Grey Ware are reported from Bari, Donder Khera, Hansai in Tehsil Bari ; Kolwa, Saipau and Son in Tehsil Dholpur ; Karka Kherli and Ghari in the Tehsil Rajakhera datable to second and first millennium B.C. early Historical and historical pottery has also been found from this area.
A trial trench excavation at Donder khera in Tehsil Bari has yielded long cultural sequences from Chalcolithic to Muslim period. The excavation has revealed Black and Red ware of Chalcolithic period followed by the Painted Grey Ware and Black Slipped Ware with associated red ware. Three different phases of structural activities have been noticed in a small operational area during excavation. These structures are part of residential apartments. The wall of the house was built of burnt bricks. The pottery assemblage of the site comprised of red slipped ware, stamped-pottery and coarse red ware, are in varied types included footed-bowls, sharp-edged bowls, vases, dishes, miniature vases, carinated handi, storage jars etc. Among the antiquities the figure of Ganesa and Jaina Tirthankara, terracotta and stone hopcoches, a copper bangle piece, iron knife and a fragment of stone sculpture are noteworthy. The antiquities can be datable to pre-Gupta period, and the site remained under the occupation up to the late mediaeval period.
The Brahmnism and Jainism both were prevailing in the society during the early mediaval period. The discoveries of Naga and Nagis figures from Dholpur put the considerable influence of Nagavansies of Padamvaties over this area. They were succeeded by Guptas as evidences reported from the excavations at Donder Khera. The figures of Nagas and Nagis sculptures are belong to tenth to twelfth century A.D. An eleventh century panchayatana temple called as Jogni-Jogana situated near Sone-ka-Gurja is an important edifice of this period.
There are many places of tourist importance belonging to medieval period like Shergarh fort, Muchkund, Sikargarh at Bari, Babers garden at Jhor, Maharajwada Purani Chhavni, Tomb of Zar-Zarina at Dhlopur are important among them.
The history of Dholpur that has travelled down to us covers an important era in the annals of Rajasthan extending from 563 B.C. to this date.
DHOLPUR THROUGH THE BUDDHAS PERIOD
It is a known fact that during Buddhas time there were sixteen Maha Janpads in Bharatvarsh. Dholpur at that time was included in Matsya Janpad. During the Mauryan rule it was included in the Mauryan Empire. From Gupta period to the arrival of Chinese traveler Huansuang Bharatpur, Karauli and Dholpur were a part of Mathura Janpad. Around 8th the 10th century, Chauhans ruled over it. During the 10th century the Jats took over. In the year 1194 it remained under Mohammed Gauri. During 8th and 11th century many Rajput and Jat rulers settled in Rajputana, a foundation of an independent Jat state was laid. Its founder was Tej Singh. His ancestors were from Bimsoli, therefore, the rulers were known as Bimsolia, Maharaja Mansingh Tomar of Gwalior bestowed upon the rulers of Dholpur the title of Rana and since then the rulers are known as Rana.
DHOLPUR DURING SULTANS
Any invader, who wished to capture Gwalior and Malwa, had to pass through Dholpur. In the year 1489 Bahlol Lodi before fighting with Gwalior king, faced the forces of the ruler of Dholpur. During the year 1502 Sikandar Lodi had to fight with Dholpur King Vinayak Dev for about a year and then with great difficulty was successful in defeating him and capturing Dholpur. Thus Dholpur came into prominence and bore the brunt of all the invading forces of the North Realising the strategic and geographical importance. It was Sikandar Lodi who first thought of having a military cantonment at Agra which was a small village under Bayana and at Dholpur in the year 1504, so that he could successfully carry out military designs against Gwalior and Malwa region. Dholpur being situated on the banks of the river Chambal was considered sate for the establishment of military cantonment and forts, during the medieval period. According to the Tawarikh Shershahi and Babarnama written by their courtiers, the credit for the construction of the Shergarh for goes to Shershah Suri.
After the famous battle of Panipat, Babar became the first Mughal ruler of Hindustan. His rule was not a bed of roses in the early years of his reign. After the death of Ibrahim Lodi Many states declared themselves independent. Talai Khan became the ruler of Gwalior. Similarly, Mohammed Jaifoon declared himself the ruler of Dholpur. Babar sent Junniad Barlas to Dholpur, who crushed the rebellion and took over the administration of Dholpur in his own hands.
Even during his reign, Dholpur war very famous for its stones which were liked everywhere. In the Babarnama it is mentioned that for the construction work of forts and buildings at Agra, Sikri, Gwalior and Aligarh, Dholpur was transported. Later on Dholpur became the bone of contention between Babar and Rana Sanga as to who should retain it. This was one of the reasons for the battle of Khanwa.
Dholpur was famous for its natural beauty, dense forests and ample games that attracted the royal princes regularly visiting this region during Mughal period. According to Humayunnama Babar once took all his wives and consorts to Dholpur on the death of his son Anwar Mirza for a change. Not only that, the beauty of Dholpur fascinated Akbar so much that he constructed the palaces at Khanpur on the banks of Talab-shahi near Bari. According to legends he constructed these palaces to make this place his capital. Later, on being offended by the residents, he left them and founded Fatehpur Sikri. The incident which paved, the way for Aurangzabs stability occurred at the place which sealed that fate of Dara Shikoh. Once Dholpur also became, a matter of dispute between Shahjahan and Noorjahan, Shahjahan once requested Emperor Jehangir to give him the pargana of Dholpur. Shahjahan taking it for granted that the Emperor would give his consent sent his faithful officer to Dholpur. On the other hand, Noorjahan had already acquired the Paragana of Dholpur for prince Shaharyaar. She deputed sharif-ul-Malik to take charge of the administration. There was a clash between the two, in which, Sharif-ul-Malik had an eye injury and many persons died in the skirmish. For this act of insolence Shahjahan was reprimanded and was asked to send his troops from the South to Agra immediately.
The ancestors of the then chiefs were originally the zamindars of Gohad, They were very brave and enterprising and their assistance was constantly sought by the illustrious Peshewa Baji Rao in his wars against the rival powers of that time i.e. 1725-1740. The Peshwas raised their status from mere zamindars to that of Quasi-independent chieftains owing allegiance to the Pashas of Poona. During the middle of the 18th century, the nephew of the ruler of Dholpur acceded to the Giddy Lavender Singh was then; a very valiant and wise ruler and he strove hard to enhance the territorial extant of his newly created principality. When the Marathas were engaged in the fatal campaign of Panipat in 1761, the chief of Gohad predicting defeat and destruction remained aloof reduced the citadel of Gwalior to submission. For six years he remained the undisputed master of the fortification till when in 1767 Marathas, regaining their lost supremacy directed their troops under the command of Raghunath Rao who was on his way to Delhi, towards Gohad with a view to put an end to any further aggrandizement on the part of Lokender Singh.
The Maratha army proceeded directly to Gohad and besieged the fort. Lavender Singh was not a man who would easily yield to the Marathas. He had in service well disciplined troops and well manned artillery; with these he was sure that he could cope with the Marathas for any length of time. Raghunath Rao expressed his willingness to enter into negotiations with the chief and a treaty was eventually concluded according to which the Rana agreed to pay 3, 00,000 rupees to the Marathas, who in their turn agreed to lift the siege and quietly return to their county. The Raja paid them the stipulated amount and the Marathas under Raghunath Rao retraced their steps towards their motherland, within a short time, however, Mahadaji scindhia arrived there and laying siege to Gwalior, took it by storm. Though the Rana was a mere feudatory prince, under the allegiance of the Marathas, he never paid them due homage, but on the contrary, often took up arms against them. In 1979 Lokendra entered in to an alliance with the British against his masters. Then British should sent troops to Rana for the protection.
In 1780 the Governor General Hasting dispatched a contingent of 2400 soldiers under the command of col. Popham, to help to Rana against his enemy Scindia, then a deadly enemy of British, who was also at daggers drawn with the chief of Gohad. Colonel Popham first conquered the fort of Lashkar on 21st April 1780. The British lost 115 men, while the lose in the army of Marathas was simply in calculable. After spending a few days in obtaining the necessary provisions of war the British marched against Gwalior. It was no an easy job to storm that stronghold, which was hitherto deemed impregnable. The defensive garrison consisted of the very cream of the Scindias army. The battalion under Popham beleaguered the front on all sides on 3rd august 1780 and by means of a strong battering trend succeeded in effecting a breach and the British then scaled the walls of the hill fort and fell furiously upon the defenders. At last, the celebrated hill fort was stormed and delivered over to their ally the Rana of Gohad.
A treaty was concluded between the British and Mahadaji Scindia on 13th October 1781 by virtue of which it was agreed that the Rana of Gohad be allowed to retain possession of the hill fort of Gwalior for 30 years, but should not now be made an independent principality. By way of compromise, Gwalior and the territories under Gohad were handed over to Scindia and the Rana received in exchange the district of Dholpur, Bari and Rajakhera. From that date the Rana of Gohad Came to be known as Rana of Dholpur.
Bagwat Singh 1773 was succeeded by his grand son, Nihal Singh who remained the ruler of dependencies as long as he observed the stipulation entered into between him and the British Govt. The Rana however was not long in breaking those terms, and in 1781-82 he openly assisted those who had conspired for the destruction of the British power in India. by the treaty of Salbai, signed by between the British and Scindia on 17th may 1782, it was so arranged that the British should restore to the Marathas all their possessions forcibly taken by them after the date of treaty of Purandar signed on 3rd June 1776. In according with the arrangement, Scindia took the control of the hill fort of Gwalior and Gohad.
The Rana had then alienated the sympathies of the British that he gained by his past loyal conduct, and he was not able to withstand single-handedly the attacks of the more powerful Sindhia. The two forts were surrendered to Mahadaji and the Rana was taken as prisoner. In 1802, war was again declared between the British and Daulat Rao Sindhia. Ambaji Inglia, the Maratha Governor of Gohad seeing the speedy approach of the British troops, resorted to a wily trick and feigning to fly into rebellion against his superior, forthwith joined the British troops. By the terms of a treaty concluded between him and the British, the fort of Gwalior and other possessions were handed over to the British, to be restored to the Rana of Gohad, while the rest of the territories remained with him, exempted from the payment of any tribute to the Paramount Power.
The British retained possession of the town and the hill-fort of Gwalior, restoring by an agreement dated 17th January 1804, the rest of the possessions to Rana Kirat Singh, who had succeeded Lokender Singh to the Gohad patrimony. The disputes between the British and Sindhia were brought to an end by the convention of Sirji Anjengaon, which was signed on 30th December 1803. Under the terms of this treaty, the British Government obtained possession of all those regions. Which were, only a few years back, held by the French between the rivers Ganga and Jamuna, together with certain districts lying to the north of Jaipur, Marwar and Gohad? In addition to these, the British were to hold Ahmadnagar, Broach, Ajanta and the regions in the fertile valley of the river Godavari. Mahadaji Sindhia was allowed to retain possession of all those districts to the south of Gohad, of which the revenues were till then collected by him in person or through some officer, nominated on his behalf, or which were held by him on military tenure for defraying the expenses for his militia.
AFTER THE YEAR 1805
Dholpur in the actual sense, started working as an independent State only after the British deputed Gohad King Rana Kirat Singh as the administrator. He ruled up to 1836. British wanted to develop Dholpur state as a buffer state. Royal families of Gwalior and Dholpur never had friendly relations and the British always took advantage of it. Dholpur acted as gateway to the South.
Kirat Singh was not satisfied with the proposed arrangement, but he had no other alternative than to yield to the superior force of his competitor. The Rana, however, from that date, looked upon Sindhia as his inveterate foe. In 1831 a family feud arose between Hanoi Rao Sindhia and his mother, Baiza Bai backed by her brother. The Rani and her brother, taking umbrage at the indignity offered to them by Sindhia, silently repatriated to Dholpur, agreeing to receive an yearly pension of 10 lakhs of rupees. The Rana received them very kindly and supplied them with all the comforts of life. He began to hate Sindhia openly for his unofficial conduct towards Baiza Bai, who on the death of Daulat Rao Sindhia without issue (21st March 1827), had adopted Jankoji Rao as her own child, and had during his minor age administered the affairs of the state.
Rana Kirat Singh died in 1836 and was succeeded by Bagman Singh. The Supreme Government sent the usual dress of investiture on the occasion of his accession to the paternal throne of Dholpur.
During the fearful rising of 1857, the flames of rebellion had spread throughout the country and a rising had actually taken place at Gwalior. The British residents were obliged to seek shelter in some other parts of the country, for the protection of their lives and property. Those who took refuge at Dholpur were very cordially treated by Rana Bhagwant Singh and were thence escorted to some other place of greater safety under the guard of his troops. For this act, the Rana won for himself the gratitude of the paramount power and obtained the dignified title of a Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. His minister, Deo Hans, acting contrary to his master's wishes, sacked some of the villages under Agra and endeavored to usurp the Gaddi of Dholpur. On his arrest, the British Government condemned him to presentment for life and kept him under strict surveillance at Benaras in 1862. The British Government conferred upon the Rana a Sanad of adoption along with other chiefs in 1864.
The rebels kept Dholpur under their control for many months. - Later the forces of Patiala state with the help of British reinstated the rule of Bhagwant Singh. In 1873, Bhagwant Singh died and his grandson Nihal Singh at the age of 8 became the new ruler. British officer Danhi became the guardian of the minor ruler and the existing palace became his residence. On attaining full powers, he maintained good relations with the British.
His Highness Nihal Singh attended the grand Fancy Ball, held, at Agra, in honour of the visit of the Prince of Wales in 1876. He was also present at the Imperial Assemblage, held at Delhi on 1st January 1877 under the presidency of Lord Lytton, the then Viceroy and Governor General, to celebrate the occasion of the assumption by Queen Victoria of the title of Kaiser-Hind. His Highness Nihal Singh held the post of Ron. Major in the British Army and enjoyed a salute of 15 guns.
INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT ROLE OF ARYA SAMAJ
In Dholpur Arya Samaj is mainly responsible for changing the outlook of the people. According to Dr. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, the efforts of Arya Samaj infused the national feeling and the people started thinking for the freedom struggle. The Arya Samaj movement encouraged the people very much. Swami Dayanand Saraswati came to Dholpur and stayed outside the Chopra temple. Five years after the visit of Swamiji, Shri Yamunaprasad Verma laid the foundation of Arya Samaj in the year 1880. The Dholpur ruler never liked it and tried his best to crush this movement. Many persons whose names are worth mentioning, like Ramswarup Vaid, Jwalaprasad Jigyasu (adopted son of Mr. Yamuna Prasad) Late Johrilal Indu, Ramdayal Pansari, Mahatma Shri Krishna, Dr Sultan Singh of old Cantt, Dr. Kamal Singh, Mr. Har Sahai, Mr. Triveni Sahai, Purohit Chhitersingh contributed vigorously to this movement. These people fought against untouchability, child marriage, castism and thus worked to spread the education amongst people of every caste and creed. With their co-operation~, an Arya Samaj school was opened that was closed down within 24 hrs. By the then ruler Udaybhan Singh. Swami Shradhanandji toured the country in the year 1918 and the impact of it was also evident in Dholpur. Swamiji personally visited Dholpur. The hoodlums of Udayabhan Singh pelted stones at Swamiji thereby injuring him and threw human excreta in the Arya Samaj temple. Later on, the ruler had to ultimately yield before the Swamiji and allowed a freehand to the activities of the Arya Samaj workers. These workers of Arya Samaj later took an active part in the freedom struggle.
RAJPUTANA MADHY BHARAT SABHA
Rajputana Madhyabharat Sabha was the first organization that was founded to look after the national aspirations of the people of the Indian states. The common people of these states had a very bitter feeling for the Rajas and Maharajas. Their oppressive measures left an untold misery on the lives of the people. They were very much afraid of them. It was a crime to publish anything against the rulers. The people were not allowed to address public meetings without the permission of the rulers. Anyone doing so had to face the curse of the rulers.
The first session of this Sabha was held in Chandni Chowk, Delhi in Marwari Library in the year 1918. Eighty representatives from the States of Jodhpur, Jaipur, Bharatpur, Udaipur, Dholpur, Alwar, Gwalior, Reewa, Indore. Narsinghgarh, Jhalrapatan, Khetri, Baroda, Bikaner and from British India participated. Ganeshshanker Vidyarthi in his inaugural address justified the formation of this Sabha. Three resolutions were passed: 1. The residents of Madhya Bharat can be the active members and the others as helping members. 2. There was lack of education in the Indian states therefore, efforts should be made to promote it. 3. Efforts should also be made for the redressal of water problem in those states where there was an acute scarcity and the rulers of those states should be requested to help their subjects. Young Johrilal Indu and Chhitersingh Purohit represented Dholpur. After returning from Delhi a branch of this Sabha was opened at Dholpur. Shri Johrilal Indu was made the first president and Shri Krishna the secretary.
The second session of this Sabha was held at Amritsar in the year 1919. This time Shriram Dayalji and Purohit Chhiter Singh represented Dho1pur. Barrister Girdharila1 Maheshwari chaired the session. The main resolution passed in this session was allowing the people of the Indian states to have popular governments, publication of weekly newspapers, that Congress should also raise the problems of the Indian states subjects, and the spread of education in Rajputana states. The result of this was the opening of a National library. Kazi Sirajuddin was made its patron. The ruler did not allow it to function and Kazi Sahib had to flee from the state for some time.
The Indian National Congress was founded in the year 1885. It was active in British India only but after 1920 it started thinking about the people of Indian States. The activities of Congress started after 1920 in Dholpur, although representatives from Dholpur state took an active part in 1918 session at Delhi and in 1919 at Amritsar session. For the first time Indian National Congress allowed the Indian state subjects to participate in the Nagpur session in the year 1920 and asked them to send their representatives. Dr. Mangal Singh represented Dholpur slate in this session. On his return to Dholpur, Dr. Mangal Singh was removed from the government service and was asked to leave the state on the frivolous charge of inciting rebellion at Jhiri. Dr. Mangal Singh believed in the National Congress ideology and always wore a Khadi cap. That is why the officers of the state were angry with him. Rajasthan Sewa Sangh deputed Mr. Ambalal to enquire into the events at Jhiri and stayed with Dr. Mangal Singh. This further displeased the state officials and they associated Dr. Singh with Jhiri rebellion. These news were published in the papers 'Rajasthan Kesri' and 'Pratap' which fanned the fire in Dholpur and brought this state into the limelight of the national leaders.
NON CO-OPERATION MOVEMENT
The impact of non co-operation movement started by Gandhiji in the year 1919-20 was felt by the residents of Dholpur. People started discarding the foreign goods and burning them on different crossings. As the organization for the production of Khadi was established, the state .discouraged the people to wear Khadi hence Khadi movement could not gain momentum.
NAGARI PRACHARNI SABHA
National awareness was growing rapidly day by day in Dholpur. In the year 1934, with the efforts of Arya Samaj workers Nagari Pracharni Sabha was established at Dholpur. This Sabha was instrumental in making Hindi popular in the state. During that period Urdu was the court language. People of Dholpur objected to the use of Urdu language. After great deliberations the ruler agreed to use Hindi and made it a court language.
AGITATION AGAINST THE IMPOSITION OF PROFESSIONAL TAX
People of Dholpur were getting restless. The imposition of professional tax aggravated the situation. The shopkeepers made a committee and assembled in one of the Dharamshala of the old city. The ruler arrested Shriram Dayalji, Omprakashji, Kedarnathji coal merchant, Mahatma Shrikrishna and sentenced them to seven months imprisonment. The shopkeepers of the whole state took part in it, and the shops were closed in Bari and Dholpur to protest against it. For the first time shops were closed for twelve days continuously, which is a unique example I in the history of Dholpur. On returning from Agra, Johrilal Indu made this agitation more aggressive; for this act he was also imprisoned and sentenced for 8 years. No lawyer from the state pleaded his case. Even the outside lawyers were not allowed. He was released after 6 years as his health was deteriorating. It was rumored that he was being slowly poisoned. His family suffered a lot.
DHOLPUR DURING 1942
All India National Congress passed the resolution of Quit India movement. There were agitations throughout the country. Lacs of people were jailed. Contrary to it, Dholpur was quiet. The reason of this indifference was the oppressions and tortures let loose by the ruler during professional tax agitation. On 12th August 1942, some of the students from Agra College visited Dholpur and compelled the Principal to close down the Maharana School. The boys came out of the classes and assembled in the playground. The students from Agra asked the local students to shout the slogan Mahatma Gandhi Zindabad. Director of Education Sardar Ranveer Singh caned those students who took part in this slogan shouting. Secretly, the youths of Dholpur involved themselves with this movement. The wires of Mania Station Cabin were cut, but nobody could be traced for this act.
DHOLPUR PRAJA MANDAL
Like other Indian States, Praja Mandal office was opened on 5th January 1944 in the village Taseemo with the support of Mr. Ram Charan, Mr. Patiram Vaid and poet Shanker Lal. Later on offices were I opened in Bari and Barauli. In the year 1945 Amritlal Modi from the central office inspected the working of the local offices. Since then, it was linked with the units of higher ranks. During freedom struggle at Dholpur, Mr. Knshandatt Paliwal and Prakash NarayanJl played an important role. Shri Krishan Datt Paliwal was contacted by the Praja Mandal people and a session was organized under the president ship of Paliwal in the village Taseemo on 10th November 1946. Many volunteers were arrested and harassed. On January 17th, 1947 Dy.S.P. Gurudatt Singh terrorized the Praia Mandal workers and asked them to disassociate themselves from the Praia Mandal activities which the workers refused. They were beaten up mercilessly and some of them had to be admitted to the Medical College, Agra for treatment. The secretary of Taseemo Praia Mandal also met the same fate. Many Praja Mandal workers were harassed throughout the state. Sardar Ranveer Singh who was an important Minister did his best to ruthlessly crush the activities of the Praja Mandal workers. Many inhuman methods of torture were adopted. They were threatened with dire consequences. Prior permission had to be obtained for holding public meetings and processions which in reality was never given. Hoisting of the National Congress flag was not allowed publicly, and was considered as a revolt against the ruler. Mr. Budh Singh, Dr. Mangal Singh and Mr. Hakim Singh were sentenced for six months rigorous imprisonment and a fine of rupees hundred was imposed for defying this order under section 323 I.P.C. Their bail applications were not accepted and not a single lawyer agreed to take up thief cases. No outside lawyer was allowed to plead their cases. Terror was let loose by the gundas on the Praja Mandal workers, they were beaten mercilessly, shops were looted, women were publicly molested, and the police and their gundas looted Shahpur, Budhiyana on March 15, 1947. Minors were not spared. Gyaso a 16 year old girl's Silver bangles were forcibly taken injuring her hand. There was no trace of the wife of Ghansunder Kachi. The ornaments of all the women that came to Kheragarh to attend the 13th day ceremony of one of their deceased relation were forcibly taken, they were humiliated publicly by the police in front of the Dee .S.P. Gurudatt Singh, and Thanedar Azam Ali.
JAIHIND SANGH 1946
An important chapter was added in the history of freedom struggle of Dholpur on the night of 26th. January 1946 when a secret meeting was organised in the dead of night near clock tower in which Pandit Chandra Shekhar, Mr. Deenanath Gupta, Mr. Jagdishprasad, Jamunadas Bansal, Mr. Krishan Saudagar, Pandit Shivcharan Sharma, and Johrilal Mangal founded the Jai Hind Sangh by signing on a piece of paper with their blood. When these people were signing this sacred document an informer named Ram Rattan was present who informed the Deputy Superintendent Police about it. The next day, a police Station House Officer Shuklalji caught hold of all the signatories and demanded that sacred document. All the signatories showed their ignorance. It is yet not known as to what happened to that sacred paper. The members were constantly threatened by the ruler but of no avail, these members kept meeting secretly. Later on these people joined the Praja Mandal. A general meeting was held in October 1946 near Jaldar Cannon in which 6000 people participated. Efforts were made by the ruler to disrupt the meeting. A heavy lathi charge was made upon the people and they ran away from the place. Sitaram Kothari was badly injured. The Congress workers were very upset that a few gundas in connivance with the police were able to disrupt their meeting. Seth Kanheyalal and few others including Kaluti Pahalwan were made the members of the Congress to combat gundaism.
HEERALAL SHASTRI'S VISIT TO DHOLPUR
The news of this suppression reached the state Lok Parishad and Mr. Hiralal Shastri was deputed to enquire into the incident at Dholpur. He visited Dholpur on March 13, 1947 and stayed with Shri Kanheyalal Seth who unfurled the tricolor at his residence. The state officials tried their best to remove it; they sent some of the gundas. Kanheyalalji was so agitated that he went on the roof top and taking out his revolver challenged the gonads who ran away from the place. A huge procession was taken out led by Kaluti Pahalwan, Laxminarian and Sampuran. Maharaja Udaybhan Singh asked Sethji to remove the flag which he refused. His residence became the centre of political activity. The sacrifice done by Sethji was unsurpassable. He even declined to accept the pension given to political sufferers after India became free.
TASEEMO-THE PLACE OF MARTYRS OF DHOLPUR
Mr. Hiralal Shastri visited Taseemo along with Sethji which is famous for the supreme sacrifice given by the martyr Chitter Singh and Pancham Singh. This place was one of the strongholds of the freedom iighters of Dholpur. The entire village was involved in this movement. The people of this village suffered a lot during that reign of terror let loose by the Maharaja. Charan Das, a folk singer was instrumental in changing the mood of the people. His patriotic songs enthralled the people. On March 31, 1947 Shastriji attended the meeting. His speech was very impressive that made the people to unfurl the tricolor on their houses and even on the treetops. During the day the police used to remove these flags. One of the youngsters, Thakur Dangal Singh was expert in climbing even the highest of trees. He used to unfurl these flags on the trees during the night. Police was at a loss how to tackle this problem. The orders from higher authorities were to capture the culprits and punish them. On April 11, 1947 a meeting was conducted in the village, the police tried to disrupt it but were not successful. After the meeting the villagers went to their fields. In the evening when they returned they found that the magistrate of Saipau, S.H.O. Ali Azam, Sardar Gurdatt Singh and Madha Thakur who were dead drunk had encircled the entire village with a huge police force. When the police were removing the tricolor, one of the elders Mr. Chitter Singh reached near the Neem tree. S.H.O. Ali Azam shouted at him and asked him to stop. On seeing him defying his orders, he shot him point blank and the old man fell down. One of the bystanders Pancham Singh whose house was very near and who was witnessing this incident from the rooftop came down to help his old friend, he too, was shot dead. This agitated the people and they gathered. The reign of terror was let loose by the police and for one hour they fired at the villagers indiscriminately. Chironji Lal, Natthilal and Harisingh were injured badly. Police were brutal; they dragged injured Chatter Singh to his house and in front of his wife, battered his head with the butts. The whole village gathered. The people were so terrorized that they fled. Police challenged Chuttan Singh, Adiram, Panna, Chondu and Devi Gainda; they were sentenced to six months rigorous imprisonment. All were released except Chhuttan Singh, who was released only after India became independent. People from the village met Sardar Patel who agreed to intervene in this matter. He called the Maharaja who showed his ignorance in the matter and readily agreed to look into it.
At the National level an All India States Lok Parishad Sammelan was held at Gwalior in April 1947 in which Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru. Dr. Pat tab hi Sitarammaiya, Acharya Narcndra Dev and many other important leaders addressed it. From Dholpur, 100 volunteers participated in it. Mr. Hiralal Shastri who was the secretary at that time proposed a condolence resolution on the death of martyrs Chhattar Singh and Pancham Singh and highlighted their heroic deed. The barbarous acts of the Dholpur police were highly condemned. In the same session under the presidentship of Acharya Narendra Dev, Dholpur Praja Mandal was formed. Dr. Mangal Singh was made the president, Pt. Ram Chandra the Vice President, Subedar Singh the secretary, Seth Budharam the treasurer, Shri Yugaldas Sharma the joint secretary and seven persons were co- opted in the executive committee. The main resolution passed in it was the endorsement of the accession of the Maharaja of Dholpur into the Indian Union.
DHOLPUR RAJYA PRAJA MANDAL AND DHOLPUR PRAJA PARISHAD
Like other Indian States, the ruler of Dholpur in order to oppose Praja Mandal activities founded the Praja Parishad and Hindu Sabha. The prominent citizens faithful to the ruler were included in it. Seth Pratap Singh, Madangopal Kamthan were the important persons. The others included were Jamuna Prasad, Babu Anant Prasad, Mannu Khan, Thekedar Gopal Sarin and Jaganath Prasad. The reason was to remain faithful in the good books of the ruler and obtain permits and concessions from the ruler. They allured the people to become the Parishad members by giving them free 10 seer maida, 10 seer sugar, 20 yards of cloth, one maund atta, 5 bottles of Kerosene, but their efforts were of no avail. The peoples sympathy was with the Praja Mandal workers. Some of the state officials of the palace leaked the secret information to the Mandal workers.
DHOLPUR DURING 1947
Like other places preparations were made by the Praja Mandal workers to celebrate the Independence Day on August 15, 1947. The Maharaja who was in Delhi informed his Minister not to allow any celebrations in Dholpur but it had no effect on the Mandal workers. The state did not declare a holiday on this day, no political prisoner was released, and even the grant of permit for a bag of sugar for the occasion was refused. The beating of drums too was banned. In spite of these restrictions, the Mandal workers took out Prahhat pheri celebrated the day and hoisted the tricolor flag at the residence of Seth Kanheya Lal. The flag hoisting ceremony was done with great pomp and show. In the evening, a procession of 5 to 6 thousand strength was taken out. The Gonads who were sent by the officials to disrupt the procession joined it and started shouting' Bharat Mata Ki Jai' and marched along with the procession.
KENTHARI KISAN SAMMELAN (17TH. DEC. 1947)
One month after Lohia's Sammelan on December 17, 1947 another Kisan sammelan was held in the village Kethari in which all the villagers of the neighbouring area participated. The poem is also one of the important documents in which a demand for the popular government was put forward by the people of the state. The whole country celebrated August 15, 1947 as the Independence Day but there was no ray of hope in Dholpur. In January 1948 another Sammelan was held in Nag1a Bidhaura. It was primarily a youth organization attended by the youths of the neighbouring villages Numbering 3000. There were 200 armed musketeers. Dr Mangal Singh recited a very forceful poem describing the aspirations of the people. Another Kisan Sammelan was organised on the February 22. 1948. in the village Rajakhera. Brijendra Singh tried to stop it. The Kisans were so agitated that some of them took out their guns and pointed at him. Seeing the mood of the people he left the place.
ASSASSINATION OF MAHATMA GANDHI
On the January 30, 1948 Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated. It sparked a fire amongst the people of Dholpur. The shops of the town were closed immediately. Parties were cancelled. Even the marriages were solemnized in a very simple manner. For 13 days, the people of Dholpur mourned the death of Mahatma Gandhi. There were a few people who were pleased and they even distributed sweets. On the third day of the assassination a car belonging to the Alwar state came to Dholpur bringing a white robed Sadhu. It returned back in the evening leaving the sadhu in the palace. The news of it reached the Mandal I workers who became suspicious and informed the Central Reserve Force Commander. Orders were issued for the surveillance and arrest of the sadhu, Baba Jugal Kishore, Subedar Singh, and other Praja Mandal workers caught the Sadhu at the railway station and handed him over to the police. This sadhu later disclosed many things about the murder of the Mahatma Gandhi. The Mandal workers went to Delhi and collected the ashes of the Mahatma Gandhi that were taken out in a procession of 12 thousand people that terminated in the park as a meeting. Throughout Dholpur condolence meetings were held and people fasted according to their capacity. On February 29, 1948 a meeting was organised by Kr. Sultan Singh in village Todpur to pay homage to the departed leader.
FLAG HOISTING ON NARSINGH INFANTRY
The country attained its independence on the August 15, 1947. Maharaja Udaybhan Singh who was the ruler at that time did not consent his state to accede into the Indian union. Maharaja was ruling the state because of his faithful officers and the Narsingh infantry. This infantry was the part of the British Army .deputed at Dholpur to assist the Maharaja. Its officers were trained by the British army like their own officers. Every year the General of the British army inspected Narsingh infantry.
expenditure of this infantry was borne by the state. There were 2,000 soldiers in it, some
of the soldiers had national feelings and they sympathized with the activities of the
Mandal. Havaldar Vidyadhar, Naik Ram Singh, Sepoy Shanker Singh, Narian Singh, Kamal
Singh, Baba Ramsingh Malela, Ramsingh Yadav and some more were dissatisfied by the conduct
and activities of their superior officers. There was an interesting incident on how they
saved two shopkeepers who were mercilessly beaten up by Judge Ranveer Singh in his
compound. They had come to participate in the Sammelan, Vidyadhar and Kamal Singh were
passing through that place in civil dress. On hearing their cries, they scaled the walls
of the compound and beat up the police who fled leaving those two, who later joined the
sammelan. These people of the infantry were on the look out for an appropriate opportunity
to hoist the National Tricolor flag. A secret meeting of the officials of the infantry was
held to arrest Dr. Mangal Singh on his return from Rajakhera Sammelan on February 22,
1948. The information leaked to the Mandal sympathizer soldiers who decided to hoist the
flag on the February 22, 1948. The National Flag was procured from the house of Kr.
Gambier Singh. At 12 noon when the guard duty was changed Guard commander Vidyadhar along
with his fellow Kamal Singh, Narian Singh. Ram Singh and Shanker Singh hoisted the
National Flag on the main building at 2 p.m. and gave a salute. The soldiers loyal to the
Maharaja were very frightened. The matter was reported to Shri Brijender Singh. Havaldar
Vidya Dhar, Kamal Singh and others took control of the armoury and took positions for
their safety. They announced that anyone entering the quarter guard will be shot at.
People gathered to look at this event. Sweets were distributed. The state officials were
at a loss as to, what to do in such a situation. They fully realised that if they tried
anything, the rebels would shoot at them with rifles and mortars. Dr. Mangal Singh
returned from the Sammelan in the evening and saw the huge crowd. He thought, perhaps, the
people had gathered hearing that he might be arrested. Later he went to the iRfantry
office and came to know as to what had happened. On seeing Dr. Mangal Singh people started
shouting slogans. The I.G. Police asked Dr. Mangal Singh to persuade the infantry people.
Dr. Mangal Singh went to the barracks. In the meantime, Sardar Patel was contacted and he
advised that, the infantry should surrender themselves as political prisoners. On the
third day they surrendered to the state police. Vidyadhar was produced before the Maharaja
who asked him the reason for this revolt against the state. In order to defame Brijender
Singh he lied before the Maharaja and said that he had done at the instigation of Captain
Brijender Singh. The news of this reached the people and Brijender Singh became a hero in
the eyes of the people and Dr Mangal Singh recommended Brijender Singh's promotion. People
approached Dr. Mangal Singh when they saw that Vidyadhar ji was not released. Dr Mangal
Singh contacted Sardar Patel who asked the Maharaja to release him. While the I.G. Police
was taking him from the Kesar Bagh to the infantry a huge crowd gathered. The I.G.
released him then and there. The people were overjoyed and there were celebrations
throughout the state. People unfurled the National lricolour on all buildings including
The expenditure of this infantry was borne by the state. There were 2,000 soldiers in it, some of the soldiers had national feelings and they sympathized with the activities of the Mandal. Havaldar Vidyadhar, Naik Ram Singh, Sepoy Shanker Singh, Narian Singh, Kamal Singh, Baba Ramsingh Malela, Ramsingh Yadav and some more were dissatisfied by the conduct and activities of their superior officers. There was an interesting incident on how they saved two shopkeepers who were mercilessly beaten up by Judge Ranveer Singh in his compound. They had come to participate in the Sammelan, Vidyadhar and Kamal Singh were passing through that place in civil dress. On hearing their cries, they scaled the walls of the compound and beat up the police who fled leaving those two, who later joined the sammelan. These people of the infantry were on the look out for an appropriate opportunity to hoist the National Tricolor flag. A secret meeting of the officials of the infantry was held to arrest Dr. Mangal Singh on his return from Rajakhera Sammelan on February 22, 1948. The information leaked to the Mandal sympathizer soldiers who decided to hoist the flag on the February 22, 1948. The National Flag was procured from the house of Kr. Gambier Singh. At 12 noon when the guard duty was changed Guard commander Vidyadhar along with his fellow Kamal Singh, Narian Singh. Ram Singh and Shanker Singh hoisted the National Flag on the main building at 2 p.m. and gave a salute. The soldiers loyal to the Maharaja were very frightened. The matter was reported to Shri Brijender Singh. Havaldar Vidya Dhar, Kamal Singh and others took control of the armoury and took positions for their safety. They announced that anyone entering the quarter guard will be shot at. People gathered to look at this event. Sweets were distributed. The state officials were at a loss as to, what to do in such a situation. They fully realised that if they tried anything, the rebels would shoot at them with rifles and mortars. Dr. Mangal Singh returned from the Sammelan in the evening and saw the huge crowd. He thought, perhaps, the people had gathered hearing that he might be arrested. Later he went to the iRfantry office and came to know as to what had happened. On seeing Dr. Mangal Singh people started shouting slogans. The I.G. Police asked Dr. Mangal Singh to persuade the infantry people. Dr. Mangal Singh went to the barracks. In the meantime, Sardar Patel was contacted and he advised that, the infantry should surrender themselves as political prisoners. On the third day they surrendered to the state police. Vidyadhar was produced before the Maharaja who asked him the reason for this revolt against the state. In order to defame Brijender Singh he lied before the Maharaja and said that he had done at the instigation of Captain Brijender Singh. The news of this reached the people and Brijender Singh became a hero in the eyes of the people and Dr Mangal Singh recommended Brijender Singh's promotion. People approached Dr. Mangal Singh when they saw that Vidyadhar ji was not released. Dr Mangal Singh contacted Sardar Patel who asked the Maharaja to release him. While the I.G. Police was taking him from the Kesar Bagh to the infantry a huge crowd gathered. The I.G. released him then and there. The people were overjoyed and there were celebrations throughout the state. People unfurled the National lricolour on all buildings including government offices.
The changing scenario at Dholpur compelled the Maharaja to ultimately join the Indian Union. On the March 17, 1948 Dholpur joined the Matsya Union along with Bharatpur, Karauli and Alwar. Maharaja Udaybhan Singh, being the eldest was made the Raj Pramukh. The Matsya cabinet took the oath of office, Mr. Shobha Ram was made the Chief Minister, Dr. Mangal Singh as the finance minister, the other ministers were Jugalkishore Chaturvedi, Bhola Nathaji, Gopilal Yadav, and Chiranjeelal, The whole cabinet was taken out in a procession and a meeting was held in which glowing tributes were paid to the martyrs. The cabinet visited Taseemo to pay their homage to the martyrs. The Chief Minister announced pensions for the martyrs family.
DISPUTE ABOUT DHOLPUR'S ACCESSION
On February 18, 1949 V .P .Menon invited the Matsya cabinet and the ruler of Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karauli about joining Greater Rajasthan. The rulers of Karauli and Alwar were willing to join Rajasthan but the rulers of Dholpur and Bharatpur preferred to join U.P. because of language affinity. On March 23, 1949 Menon again invited the Maharaja of Bharatpur and Dholpur for further talks on the matter. Brijendra Singh the ruler of Bharatpur told Menon that his subjects wanted to merge with Rajasthan. Maharaja Udaybhan Singh also agreed on the condition that a referendum may be held later on, to ascertain the wishes of the people whether they want to remain in Rajasthan or in U.P Sardar Patel appointed a Commission of three members on the April 4, and directed it to submit its report by the April 30, 1949. In this short period, the Commission members visited both the states and tried to ascertain the wishes of the people. The Commission in its report said that the people wanted to join Rajasthan, and gave a very important suggestion that a referendum may be held some time later to ascertain their wishes. On May I, 1949 the report was accepted and both the states were merged in Rajaslhan along with the other two Alwar and Karauli. On May 10, agreement was signed by the rulers to this effect. On May15, 1949 the Matsya administration was handed over to Rajasthan.
Udaybhan Singh was an influential member of the Narendra Mandal. When the British Government announced the transfer of power lo the popularly elected members of India, the rulers of Dholpur, Hyderabad, Junagarh and Jodhpur put obstacles in this direction. He even incited the Maharaja of Jodhpur to join Pakistan. On August 6, 1947 with the help of Nawab of Bhopal he even arranged a meeting with Mr. Jinnah. Maharaja Dholpur died in the year 1954. Whatever may be his political opinion he was a very dominant personality. After his death his daughter's son Shri Hemant Singh acceded the Gaddi. He was instrumental in removing the bitterness between the rulers of Gwalior and Dholpur by marrying Vasundhara Raje Scindia.
1. Indian Archaeology-A Review
2. Early History of North India
3. A New History of the Indian People
4. Mewar and Mughal Emperors by Dr. G.N. Sharma
5. Ain-i-Akbari by Abul Fazl
6. The Hind Rajasthan 1896 by M.N. Mehta
7. Role of Rajasthan in the Struggle of 1857
8. 1857 Struggle by Sen, Surendranath
9. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan by Col. James Todd
10. Vishal Bharat- 1957